MATH FOR CLINICAL CALCULATIONS

1. REVIEW OF MATHEMATICAL CONCEPTS
A. Fractions
1. Definitions: proper and improper fractions and mixed numbers
2. Simplifying
3. Conversions between proper and improper fractions and mixed numbers
4. Multiplying fractions and mixed numbers
5. Reciprocals of fractions
6. Dividing fractions and mixed numbers
7. Adding/subtracting fractions and mixed numbers

B. Decimals and Percentages
1. Definitions: decimal, mixed decimal, and percent
2. Multiplying/dividing decimals and mixed decimals
3. Adding/subtracting decimals and mixed decimals
4. Conversion of decimal to fraction or percent
5. Conversion of fraction to decimal or percent
6. Conversion of percent to decimal or fraction

C. Algebraic Operations
1. Properties of Real Numbers
a. Identities and inverses of addition and multiplication
b. Associative Law for addition and multiplication
c. Commutative Law for addition and multiplication
d. Distributive Law of multiplication over addition/subtraction
2. Identify the components of a term
3. Define a polynomial, monomial, and binomial
4. Identify and combine like terms
5. Simplify, multiply, and divide monomials

D. Solving Linear Equations
1. Add/subtract or multiply/divide values from both sides of equation
2. Define a solution set for an algebraic equation
3. Solve linear equation in simplest form
4. Clear groups of parenthesis and absolute values
5. Solve linear equations with fractions, decimal, or percent coefficients

E. Working with Literal Formulas
1. Evaluate formulas
2. Solve for a variable in a literal equation

F. Ratio and Proportion
1. Define a ratio in the colon form and fraction form
2. Define a proportion in colon form and fraction form
3. Solve a proportion
a. Cross multiplying in fraction form
b. Product of means and extremes in colon form
c. Write a proportion to solve an application

G. Direct and Inverse Variation
1. Understand direct variation and proportion
2. Write direct variations from applications
3. Understand inverse variation and proportions
4. Write inverse variation from applications

H. Graphs
1. Bar Graphs
a. Create a bar graph from data
b. Interpret a bar graph
2. Circle Graph or Pie Chart
a. Create a circle graph from data
b. Interpret a circle graph
3. Line Graph
i. Understand the components of the coordinate plane
1. Ordered pairs
2. Vertical and horizontal axes
ii. Plot points on the graph
iii. Create a coordinate plane graph from an equation in two variables
iv. Use the coordinate graph to interpolate and extrapolate

I. Significant Digits, Accuracy, and Precision
1. Define accuracy and precision of measurement
2. Determine the number of significant digits of a value
3. Find the greatest possible error and the interval of precision
4. Round values to the correct significant digits
i. After addition and subtraction
ii. After multiplication and division

J. Roman Numerals
1. Identify the symbols used in Roman numerals for Health Care fields
2. Convert Roman numerals to Arabic numerals
3. Convert Arabic numerals to Roman numerals

2. Measurement in the Metric, Apothecary, and Household Systems
A. Basic units and measurements (Metric, Apothecary, and Household)
B. Conversion Equivalents within each system
C. Conversion of measurements
1. Use ratios and proportions to convert between systems
2. Use dimensional analysis to convert between systems
D. Measurements of Temperature and Body Mass
1. Understand the relationship between Fahrenheit and Celsius degrees
2. Convert Fahrenheit to Celsius and Celsius to Fahrenheit
3. Understand the relationship between kilograms and pounds
4. Convert kilograms to pounds and pounds to kilograms
5. Understand the relationship between inches and centimeters
6. Convert centimeters to inches and inches to centimeters

3. Labels on Medications and Prescribing Information
A. Components of the drug labels
1. Names: Generic and Trade.
2. Form
3. Route of Administration
4. Total Amount or Total Volume
5. Precautions
B. Abbreviations used in prescriptions

4. Calculating Oral Dosages
A. Identify the basic forms of oral medications
1. Solids in tablets, caplets, capsules, enteric, coated, and chewable
2. Liquids in solutions or suspensions
B. Using ratios/proportions to calculate a dosage
C. Using dimensional analysis to calculate a dosage
D. Calculate the amount of mL or solid form to administer

5. Calculate Parenteral or Injectable Dosages
A. Review abbreviations and labels
B. Dosage strength given in percent, ratio, or units
C. Calculate dosages for injection
D. Measuring in a calibrated syringe

6. Reconstitution
A. Process of preparing a liquid from a dry powder
1. Calculating dosage strength
2. Determine the dose quantity
B. Process of reconstituting a liquid form
1. Single strength medications and dosages in percent and unit forms
2. Multiple strength medications and dosages in percent and unit forms
C. Preparing a solution
1. Combining a diluent with a pure drug
2. Combining two solutions for a concentration
D. Calculate correct dosage to administer

7. Calculate Pediatric Dosages
A. Conversions between kg/lbs and in/cm
B. Calculate correct body mass
C. Use dimensional analysis to calculate dose from body weight
D. Calculate Body Surface Area
E. Calculate doses based on BSA

8. Intravenous
A. Calculate flow rates in mL/hr and gtt/min, etc
B. Calculate infusion times
C. Calculate infusion volumes
D. Calculate concentration rates in mL/hr, units/hr, mL/min, etc
E. Calculate dosages in mcg/kg/hr, mcg/kg/min, etc
1. Based on strength of medication
2. Based on weight
3. Based on time